Massol R.H., Larsen J.E., Fujinaga Y., Lencer W.I., Kirchhausen T. Cholera toxin toxicity doesn’t require useful Arf6- and dynamin-dependent endocytic pathways. Hirst T.R., Sanchez J., Kaper J.B., Hardy S.J., Holmgren J. Mechanism of toxin secretion by Vibrio cholerae investigated in strains harboring plasmids that encode warmth-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli. Davis B.M., Lawson E.H., Sandkvist M., Ali A., Sozhamannan S., Waldor M.K. Convergence of the secretory pathways for cholera toxin and the filamentous phage, CTXphi. Sanchez J., Holmgren J. Cholera toxin structure, gene regulation and pathophysiological and immunological elements. van Heyningen W.E., King C.A. The role of gangliosides in the action of cholera toxin. Sattler J., Wiegandt H. Studies of the subunit structure of choleragen.
ST1 and a rabbit antibody in opposition to the A subunit of ST1 had been obtained from BEI Resources . CT supplies a nicely-characterized pathway for the intracellular trafficking and translocation of an AB toxin. The ring-like CTB homopentamer contacts GM1 gangliosides on the host plasma membrane, thereby triggering endocytosis by way of a lipid raft mechanism .
Sun, J.-B.; Czerkinsky, C.; Holmgren, J. Mucosally induced immunological tolerance, regulatory T cells and the adjuvant effect by cholera toxin B subunit. Wein, A.N.; Peters, D.E.; Valivullah, Z.; Hoover, B.J.; Tatineni, A.; Ma, Q.; Fattah, R.; Bugge, T.H.; Leppla, S.H.; Liu, S. An anthrax toxin variant with an improved exercise in tumor focusing on. McCluskey, A.J.; Olive, A.J.; Starnbach, M.N.; Collier, R.J. Targeting HER2-positive most cancers cells with receptor-redirected anthrax protective antigen. Liu, S.; Bugge, T.H.; Leppla, S.H. Targeting of tumor cells by cell floor urokinase plasminogen activator-dependent anthrax toxin.
ER-translocating toxins evade the ubiquitin-proteasome system, though proteasomal inhibition may end up in mild sensitization to some ER-translocating toxins, corresponding to ricin . To determine whether or not proteasomal inhibition may affect Pet intoxication, CHO cells had been incubated with 40 μg Pet/ml for 20 h within the absence or presence of the proteasome inhibitor ALLN. Cells uncovered to 10 μM ALLN had been extra prone to Pet intoxication than cells incubated within the absence of ALLN have been (Fig. 5B). This indicated that at least a share of translocated Pet is susceptible to proteasome-mediated degradation in the cytosol. Cells uncovered to 10 μM ALLN alone did not exhibit substantial cell detachment and had been used to normalize the detachment outcomes obtained with CHO cells incubated with both Pet and ALLN. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI three-kinase) is active in endocytic protein trafficking , participates in the formation of multivesicular bodies , and is concerned within the fusion of endosomes .
S5 Fig Phenolic Compounds Do Not Have An Effect On Reduction Of The Ct Disulfide Bond.
Mogridge J., Cunningham K., Collier R.J. Stoichiometry of anthrax toxin complexes. Hou W., Wu Y., Sun S., Shi M., Sun Y., Yang C., Pei G., Gu Y., Zhong C., Sun B. Pertussis toxin enhances Th1 responses by stimulation of dendritic cells. Oloomi M., Bouzari S., Emami S. A recombinant hybrid peptide composed of AAF adhesin of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin B subunit elicits protecting immune response in mice. Johannes L., Romer W. Shiga toxins—from cell biology to biomedical applications.
Overall, these engineered proteins present that each the A and B subunits of anthrax toxin have strong potential as a protein delivery system, and so they open many new routes for investigating the event of therapeutics. However, the immunogenicity of anthrax toxin subunits, as illustrated by way of PA in anthrax vaccines, for instance, stay a problem to address in its therapeutical applications . Figure 1.Internalization mechanisms of botulinum toxin type A, anthrax toxin, and cholera toxin. Botulinum toxin binds to polysialogangliosides and then to synaptic vesicle protein 2 , which leads to the internalization of the toxin in small synaptic vesicles. The low pH induces a structural change of botulinum toxin heavy chain that leads to the unfolding of the sunshine chain and its translocation via the membrane. Once within the cytosol, the disulfide bond between the HC and LC is reduced, and the LC refolds.